Nutrition

Importance of dietary fibre in the daily diet

What is dietary fibre?

Dietary fibres are carbohydrate-based plant materials that are neither digested nor absorbed in the upper parts of the digestive system. This is because dietary fibres cannot be broken down by our own digestive enzymes. The definition of dietary fibre not only includes those located in the cell walls of plants (e.g. cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin), but also other non-digestible carbohydrates such as resistant starch, oligosaccharides (e.g. inulin) and lignin.  Dietary fibres present in plant cell walls are the major components of dietary fibre and as they provide a rigid structure by surrounding plant cells, they affect the digestion and release of nutrients [1-3].

What are the effects of dietary fibre?

Dietary fibre is well known for its significant impact on digestion and gut function, which include effects on the proportion of nutrients available for absorption, the time it takes for food to pass through the digestive system, slowing of the flow and mixing of the food as it is digested, changes in the rate and extent of macronutrient digestion and absorption, and effects on the bacteria living in the large intestine [1].The role of fibre in capturing nutrients has been identified as an important mechanism by which plant foods tend to be digested more slowly and to a lesser extent, thereby lowering the rise in blood glucose and/or lipids after a meal [1].

Dietary fibres differ with regard to their physical and chemical properties. For instance, fibres can consist of very long to relatively short chains of molecules, are soluble in water to a varying degree, can in some cases form a viscous gel-like substance upon contact with water, and range from almost completely fermentable to largely non-fermentable by the bacteria in the gut. Unsurprisingly, different fibre types have different effects on gut function, metabolism and health [1, 3].For example, largely insoluble cereal fibres from wheat, bran and oats contribute to an increase in stool mass[4, 5], whereas, beta-glucan, a soluble, viscous fibre found in oats and barley, reduces blood cholesterol levels by interfering with cholesterol absorption[6, 7].Consumption of soluble, viscous fibres (e.g. beta-glucans) can also contribute a reduction of the blood glucose rise after a meal [8-9].

How much dietary fibre do I need?

Dietary fibre aids laxation by increasing faecal bulk and stool frequency and reducing intestinal transit time. To maintain normal laxation it is recommended that adults consume 25 g of fibre per day. However, there is evidence of beneficial health effects if dietary fibre intake is increased. However, in many modern societies diets are very low in dietary fibre [2]. Nowadays, fibre intake in most European countries is below the recommended levels, with average intakes as low as 12.7 and 13.6g per day in Spain and UK, respectively [10-11]

Fibre intake and the gut microbiome

After passing through the upper parts of the digestive system undigested, dietary fibres reach the large intestine, where they are fermented by around 39 trillion bacteria which live there. For your reference, the average human body consists of 30 trillion cells [12]. In the large intestine fermentable dietary fibre is converted into short-chain fatty acids and other metabolites [13].Dietary fibre that is not (fully) fermented by the bacteria is excreted in faeces [14].Short-chain fatty acids represent a source of energy for the host(up to 10% of daily energy intake)and are important signalling molecules that affect our health in many ways, for example by affecting intestinal transit, decreasing glucose production in the liver, reducing inflammation, and increasing satiety [15-16].

Humans have evolved with dense microbial populations that colonise our gut, which are related to the immune system, cardiovascular health, and bodyweight, among others. However, emerging evidence suggests that current lifestyle, in particular a diet low in dietary fibre, has led to an important reduction of the human gut microbiome [17]. A low-fibre diet does not provide sufficient nutrients for the gut bacteria, leading to a loss of species and, therefore, a reduction in the production of short-chain fatty acids and other metabolites with important physiological functions [17]. An adequate dietary fibre intake may thus be a requirement for an optimal balance of the microbes living in your gut [13, 17, 18, 19].

How do I boost my dietary fibre intake?

To obtain the full range of health benefits associated with the consumption of a mix of fibre-rich foods, it is generally recommended to get your dietary fibre through a variety of food sources [2, 13]. ≥25g of fibre/day is achievable through a healthy diet, if meals are based around wholegrain varieties of starchy foods, include at least five portions of fruit and vegetables daily (1 portion = 80 g), and fibre-rich snacks(nuts, seeds, and dried fruit)and other high-fibre foods(e.g. pulses)are selected. However, in certain circumstances, it may be difficult to meet the fibre recommendations via traditional foods, and innovative high-fibre ingredients may help consumers to increase their fibre intakes [20] and provide additional targeted health benefits (e.g. blood glucose control, blood cholesterol reduction, normal intestinal function) in case of specific fibre types, such as oat fibre, beta-glucans from oats and barley [4, 6, 8,].

 

References

  1. Grundy, M.M., et al., Re-evaluation of the mechanisms of dietary fibre and implications for macronutrient bioaccessibility, digestion and postprandial metabolism. Br J Nutr, 2016. 116(5): p. 816-33.
  2. EFSA, Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. EFSA Journal, 2010. 8(3):1462.
  3. Lovegrove, A., et al., Role of polysaccharides in food, digestion, and health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2017. 57(2): p. 237-253.
  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, N. and Allergies, Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to oat and barley grain fibre and increase in faecal bulk (ID 819, 822) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2011;9(6):2249.
  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, N. and Allergies, Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to wheat bran fibre and increase in faecal bulk (ID 3066), reduction in intestinal transit time (ID 828, 839, 3067, 4699) and contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight (ID 829) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2010;8(10):1817
  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, N. and Allergies, Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to oat beta glucan and lowering blood cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2010;8 (12):1885.
  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, N. and Allergies, Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to barley beta-glucans and lowering of blood cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2011;9(12):2471.
  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, N. and Allergies, Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to pectins and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 786), maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations (ID 818) and increase in satiety leading to a reduction in energy intake (ID 4692) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2010;8(10):1747.
  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, N. and Allergies, Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to beta-glucans from oats and barley and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1236, 1299), increase in satiety leading to a reduction in energy intake (ID 851,852), reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 821, 824), and “digestive function” (ID 850) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2011;9(6):2207.
  10. Ruiz E., et al. Macronutrient Distribution and Dietary Sourcesin the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study. Nutrients, 2016, 8, 177
  11. Stephen AM., et al. Dietary fibre in Europe: current state of knowledge on definitions, sources, recommendations, intakes and relationships to health. Nutr Res Rev.2017Jul 5:1-42.
  12. Sender, R., S. Fuchs, and R. Milo, Revised Estimates for the Number of Human and Bacteria Cells in the Body. PLoS Biol, 2016. 14(8): p. e1002533.
  13. Sonnenburg, J.L. and F. Backhed, Diet-microbiota interactions as moderators of human metabolism. Nature, 2016. 535(7610): p. 56-64.
  14. McRorie, J.W., Jr. and N.M. McKeown, Understanding the Physics of Functional Fibers in the Gastrointestinal Tract: An Evidence-Based Approach to Resolving Enduring Misconceptions about Insoluble and Soluble Fiber. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017 Feb;117(2):251-264.
  15. Koh, A., et al., From Dietary Fiber to Host Physiology: Short-Chain Fatty Acids as Key Bacterial Metabolites. Cell, 2016. 165(6): p. 1332-1345.
  16. Fetissov, S.O., Role of the gut microbiota in host appetite control: bacterial growth to animal feeding behaviour. Nat Rev Endocrinol, 2017. 13(1): p. 11-25.
  17. Deehan, E.C. and J. Walter, The Fiber Gap and the Disappearing Gut Microbiome: Implications for Human Nutrition. Trends Endocrinol Metab, 2016. 27(5): p. 239-42.
  18. Lynch, S.V. and O. Pedersen, The Human Intestinal Microbiome in Health and Disease. N Engl J Med, 2016. 375(24): p. 2369-2379.
  19. Dahl, W.J. and M.L. Stewart, Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Health Implications of Dietary Fiber. J Acad Nutr Diet, 2015. 115(11): p. 1861-70.
  20. Hooper, B., A. Spiro, and S. Stanner, 30 g of fibre a day: An achievable recommendation? Nutrition Bulletin, 2015. 40(2): p. 118-129.